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moneycontrol.com भारत | लेखांकन नीति > Telecommunications - Equipment > लेखांकन नीति फॉलोड से एस्ट्रा माइक्रोवेब प्रोडक्ट्स - बीएसई: 532493, NSE: ASTRAMICRO

एस्ट्रा माइक्रोवेब प्रोडक्ट्स

बीएसई: 532493  |  NSE: ASTRAMICRO  |  ISIN: INE386C01029  |  Telecommunications - Equipment

खोजें एस्ट्रा माइक्रोवेब प्रोडक्ट्स कनेक्शन मार्च 17
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '18

Note 1: Significant accounting policies

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

Note 1.1 Basis of preparation of financials statements

(i) Compliance with Ind AS

The financial statements comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards(Ind AS) notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The financial statements up to year ended 31 March 2017 were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Act.

These financial statements are the first financial statements of the Company under Ind AS, refer note 40 for an explanation of how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind AS has affected the company’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows.”

(ii) Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

- Certain financial assets and liabilities that is measured at fair value;

- Defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value;

Note 1.2 : Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make estimates, judgements and assumptions. These estimates, judgements and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of the assets and liabilities, the disclosure of the contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the period. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the management becomes aware of these changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

Note 1.3 : Foreign currency translation

(i) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (INR), which is Company functional and presentation currency.

(ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are generally recognised in profit or loss.

Foreign exchange differences regarded as an adjustment to borrowing cost are presented in the statement of profit and loss, within finance cost. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the statement of profit and loss on a net basis within other gains/(losses).

Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. Translation differences on assets and liabilities carried at fair value are reported as part of the fair value gain or loss.

Note 1.4 : Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised at fair value of the consideration received and receivable. Amount disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, trade allowances, rebates, value added taxes/GST and amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

The Company recognises revenue when the amount of revenue can be reliably measured, it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and specific criteria have been met for each of the company’s activities as described below.

Sale of products:

Timing of recognition- Revenue from sale of products is recognised when significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred to customers based on the terms of sale.

Measurement of revenue- Revenue from sales is based on the price specified in the sales contracts, net of volume discounts and returns if any at the time of sale.”

Revenue from sale of services:

Timing of recognition: Revenue from sale of services is recognised in the accounting period in which the services are rendered. For fixed-price contracts, revenue is recognised based on the actual service provided to the end of the reporting period as a proportion of total services to be provided (percentage of completion method).

Measurement of revenue: Estimates of revenues, costs or extent of progress toward completion are revised if circumstances change. Any resulting increases or decreases in estimated revenues or costs are reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the circumstances that give rise to the revision become known by management.

Note 1.5 : Government grants

Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the company will comply with all attached conditions.

Government grants relating to income are deferred and recognised in the profit or loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in non-current liabilities as deferred income and are credited to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected lives of the related assets and presented within other income.

Note 1.6 : Income tax

The income tax expense or credit for the period is the tax payable on the current period’s taxable income based on the applicable income tax rate for each jurisdiction adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences and to unused tax losses.

The current income tax charge is calculated on the basis of the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. However, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if they arise from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred income tax is also not accounted for if it arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss). Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realised or the deferred income tax liability is settled.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses only if it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilise those temporary differences and losses.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Current and deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

Note 1.7 : Leases

As a lessee:

Leases of property, plant and equipment where the company, as lessee, has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalized at the lease’s inception at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in borrowings or other financial liabilities as appropriate. Each lease payment is allocated between the liability and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to the profit or loss over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period. Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

As a lessor:

Lease income from operating leases where the company is a lessor is recognised in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases. The respective leased assets are included in the balance sheet based on their nature.

Note 1.8 : Impairment of assets

Assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.

Note 1.9 : Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.

Note 1.10 : Trade receivables

Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.

Note 1.11 : Inventories

Raw materials and stores, work in progress and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of raw materials comprises cost of purchases. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory on weighted average basis. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Note 1.12 : Investments and other financial assets

i) Classification

The company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss), and

- those measured at amortised cost.

The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income. The company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.

ii) Measurement

At initial recognition, the company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss.

Debt instruments

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the company classifies its debt instruments:

Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at amortised cost and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method.

Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI): Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest revenue and foreign exchange gains and losses which are recognised in profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognised in other gains/(losses). Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.

Fair value through profit or loss: Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVOCI are measured at fair value through profit or loss. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in profit or loss and presented net in the statement of profit and loss within other gains/(losses) in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.

Equity instruments

The company subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in profit or loss as other income when the company’s right to receive payments is established.

Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in other gain/ (losses) in the statement of profit and loss. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.

iii) Impairment of financial assets

The company assesses on a forward looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortised cost and FVOCI debt instruments. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. Note 30 details how the company determines whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.

For trade receivables only, the company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.

iv) Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognized only when

- The company has transferred the rights to receive cash flow from the financial asset or

- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial assets, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay cash flows to one or more recipients Where the entity has transferred an asset, the company evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In such cases, the financial asset is derecognized. Where the entity has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset is not derecognized.Where the entity has neither transferred a financial asset nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.

v) Income recognition Interest income

Interest income from the debt instruments is recognised using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset. When calculating the effective interest rate, the company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider the expected credit losses.

Dividends

Dividends are recognised in profit or loss only when the right to receive payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the company, and the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably.

Note 1.13 : Derivatives

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. These derivative contracts are not designated as hedges and are accounted for at fair value through profit or loss and are included in other income.

Note 1.14 : Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the company or the counterparty.

Note 1.15 : Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as separate asset is derecognized when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment recognized as at April 1, 2016 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.

Depreciation/amoritsation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation is provided on written down value method considering the useful lives of the assets that have been determined based on technical evaluation done by the management which are inline with the useful lives prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. In respect of solar power generating plant the management has estimated the useful life as 25 years. The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset.

The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period.

Gains and losses on disposal are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in statement profit and loss under other income.

Note 1.16 : Trade and other payables

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are usually paid within credit period after recognition. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognized initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Note 1.17 : Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction cost incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognized in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognized as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalized as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortized over the period of the facility to which it relates.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognized in statement of profit and loss under other income.

Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term loan arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as consequence of the breach.

Note 1.18 : Borrowings costs

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale.

Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing cost eligible for capitalization.

Other borrowings costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

Note 1.19 : Provisions, Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably.

The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements. A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity. The Company does not recognize a contingent asset but discloses its existence in the financial statements if the inflow of economic benefits is probable.

Note 1.20 : Employee benefits

(i) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognized in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

(ii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave and sick leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefit are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligations. Remeasurements as a result of the experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in profit or loss.

The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

(iii) Post-employment obligations

The company operates the following post-employment schemes:

(a) Defined benefit plans - gratuity; and

(b) Defined contribution plans - provident fund.

a. Defined benefit plans - gratuity

The liability or assets recognized in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligations at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. The benefits which are denominated in currency other than INR, the cash flows are discounted using market yields determined by reference to high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and change in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognized immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

b. Defined contribution plans - provident fund

The company pays provident fund contributions to publicly administered funds as per local regulations. The company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognized as employee benefit expense when they are due. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.

Note 1.21 : Contributed equity

Equity shares are classified as equity.

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

Note 1.22 : Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period.

Note 1.23 : Earnings per share

(i) Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing:

- The profit attributable to owners of the company

- By the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year.

(ii) Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- The after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- The weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.”

Note 1.24 : Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The Company has identified Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer as chief operating decision makers.

Note 1.25 : Research and Development expenditure:

Research expenditure and development expenditure that do not meet the below criteria are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs previously recognised as an expense are not recognised as asset in a subsequent period.

i) it is technically feasible to complete the project so that it will be available for use

ii) management intends to complete the project and use or sell it

iii) there is an ability to use or sell the project

iv) it can be demonstrated how the project will generate probable future economic benefits

v) adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the project are available and

vi) the expenditure attributable to the project during its development can be reliably measured.

Note 1.26 : Standards issued but not yet effective:

The standards issued, but not yet effective up to the date of issuance of the Company’s financial statements are disclosed below.

Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contract with Customers:

On March 28, 2018, Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified the Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contract with Customers. The core principle of the new standard is that revenue should be recognised when a customer obtains control of a promised good or service and thus has the ability to direct the use and obtain the benefits from the good or service in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. Further, the new standard requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts with customers.

The Company will adopt the standard on April 1, 2018 and the management is in the process of determining the effect on adoption of Ind AS 115.

Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration

On March 28, 2018, MCA has notified the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 containing Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration which clarifies the date of the transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income, when an entity has received or paid advance consideration in a foreign currency. This amendment will come into force from April 1, 2018. The company has evaluated the effect of this on the financial statements and the impact is not material.

Note 1.27 : Critical estimates and judgements:

The preparation of financial statements requires the use of accounting estimates which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the Company’s accounting policies. This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in relevant notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

The area involving critical estimates or judgements is:

1. Estimation of defined benefit obligation

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated. They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the Company and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

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