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moneycontrol.com भारत | लेखांकन नीति > Power - Generation & Distribution > लेखांकन नीति फॉलोड से केएसके एनर्जी वेंचर्स - बीएसई: 532997, NSE: KSK

केएसके एनर्जी वेंचर्स

बीएसई: 532997  |  NSE: KSK  |  ISIN: INE143H01015  |  Power - Generation & Distribution

खोजें केएसके एनर्जी वेंचर्स कनेक्शन मार्च 16
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '18

1 Significant accounting policies

1.1 Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and/or accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to property plant and equipment such as employee cost, borrowing costs for long-term construction projects etc., if recognition criteria are met. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its costs are recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company. All other repairs and maintenance costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Depreciation is computed, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, on straight-line basis over the estimated useful life which are consistant with the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used as follows:

Assets in the course of construction are stated at cost and not depreciated until commissioned.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in statement of profit and loss in the year the asset is derecognised.

The assets residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation are reviewed at each financial year end, and adjusted prospectively if appropriate.

1.2 Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset is accounted for by changing the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

1.3 Non-current assets held-for-sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held-for-sale are measured at lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held-for-sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuous use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Management is committed to the sale, which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale generally within one year from the date of classification.

Immediately before classification as held-for-sale or held-for-distribution, the assets, or components of a disposal group, are re-measured in accordance with the Company’s other accounting policies. Thereafter, generally the assets, or disposal group, are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Any impairment loss on a disposal group is allocated first to goodwill, and then to the remaining assets and liabilities on a pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to inventories, financial assets, deferred tax assets, employee benefit assets which continue to be measured in accordance with the Company’s other accounting policies. Impairment losses on initial classification as held-for-sale or held-for-distribution and subsequent gains and losses on re-measurement are recognised in profit or loss. Gains are not recognised in excess of any cumulative impairment loss.

1.4 Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when an entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.

1.5 Financial assets

Initial recognition & Measurement

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised/derecognised on a trade date basis Subsequent measurement

For the purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instrument at amortised cost

- Debt instrument at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).

- Equity Instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

- Debt instrument, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.

Debt instrument at FVTOCI

A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

- The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

- The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

Debt instrument at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L. Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. For the equity instruments Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L. Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognised when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired? or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

Impairment of financial asset

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost, trade receivables and other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the group determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the group in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:

- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument.

- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that

1.6 Financial liabilities

Initial recognition

Financial liabilities within the scope of Ind AS 109 are classified as

- Fair value through profit or loss

- Other financial liability at amortised cost

The Company determines the classification of its financial liabilities at initial recognition. Financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and in the case of loans and borrowings, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

Subsequent measurement

The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification as follows:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are acquired for the purpose of selling in the near term. This category includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit and loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if criteria of Ind AS 109 are satisfied.

Loans and borrowings at amortised cost

After initial recognition, loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the amortisation process.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the Balance sheet if, and only if, there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

Amortised cost of financial instruments

Amortised cost is computed using the effective interest method less any allowance for impairment and principal repayment or reduction. The calculation takes into account any premium or discount on acquisition and includes transaction costs and fees that are an integral part ofthe EIR.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability, and the difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the P&L.

1.7 Fair value measurement

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the financial asset or settle the financial liability takes place either:

- In the principal market, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company. A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use. Fair value measurement and / or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realisable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

The Company- uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

At each reporting date, the Management analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be remeasured or re-assessed as per the Company’s - accounting policies.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

1.8 Foreign currency translation

In preparing the financial statements of the Company, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency are recognised at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rates prevailing at that date.

Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at fair value are translated to functional currency at foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates the fair value was determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in other comprehensive income (OCI) or profit or loss are also recognised in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).

1.9 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company, and revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable in accordance with the relevant agreements, net of discounts, rebates and other applicable taxes and duties.

Sale of electricity : Revenue from the sale of electricity is recognised when earned on the basis of contractual arrangement with the customers and reflects the value of units supplied including an estimated value of units supplied to the customers between the date of their last meter reading and year end.

Rendering of services : The Company provides project development and corporate support. Revenue from rendering of services is recognised in statement of profit and loss in the period in which the services are rendered by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction at the reporting date. The stage of completion is assessed on the basis of the actual services provided as a proportion of the total service to be provided.

Interest and dividend income : Revenue from interest is recognised on an accrual basis (using the effective interest rate method). Revenue from dividends is recognised when the right to receive the payment is established.

1.10 Taxes

Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current and prior periods are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income tax

Deferred income tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences at the reporting date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes.

Deferred income tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except:

- Where the deferred income tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit;

- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and interests in joint operations, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred income tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credit and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised except:

- Where the deferred income tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss;

- In respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and interests in joint operations, deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred income tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities, relating to items recognised outside statement of profit and loss is recognised outside statement of profit and loss. Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the deferred income taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

1.11 Leases

Company as a lessee

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on accrual basis.

1.12 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets.

All other borrowing costs including transaction costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which they are incurred, the amount being determined using the effective interest rate method.

1.13 Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or Groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs to sell, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded subsidiaries or other available fair value indicators.

Impairment losses of continuing operations are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for property previously revalued where the revaluation was taken to equity. In this case the impairment is also recognised in equity up to the amount of any previous revaluation.

For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognised impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or cash-generating unit’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

1.14 Cash and short-term deposits

Cash and short-term deposits in the Balance Sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits.

For the purpose of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and readily convertible short-term deposits, net of restricted cash and outstanding bank overdrafts.

1.15 Earnings per share

The earnings considered in ascertaining the Company’s earnings per share (EPS) comprise the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity holders. The number of shares used for computing the basic EPS is the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted earnings per share amounts are calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to equity holders (after adjusting for effects of all dilutive potential equity shares) by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential shares into equity shares.

1.16 Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Where the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

1.17 Employee benefits

Gratuity

In accordance with Gratuity laws, the Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (“the Gratuity Plan”) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment.

Liabilities with regard to the Gratuity plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each reporting date using the projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the gratuity fund administered and managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, a Government of India undertaking which is a qualified insurer.

The Company recognises the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its Balance sheet as an asset or liability, respectively in accordance with Ind AS 19, Employee benefits. Re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in OCI. The Company determines the net interest expense / (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then-net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability / (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in profit or loss

Provident fund

Eligible employees of Company receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary and the employer contribution is charged to statement of profit and loss. The benefits are contributed to the government administered provident fund, which is paid directly to the concerned employee by the fund. The Company has no further obligation to the plan beyond its monthly contributions.

Employees State Insurance Scheme

In addition, some employees of the Company are covered under “Employees State Insurance Scheme Act 1948”, which are also defined contribution schemes recognized and administered by Government of India.

The Company’s contributions to these schemes are recognized as expense in statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company has no further obligation under these plans beyond its monthly contributions.

Short- term benefits

Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid towards bonus if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

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