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मार्ग

बीएसई: 530543  |  NSE: MARG  |  ISIN: INE941E01019  |  Construction & Contracting - Housing

खोजें मार्ग कनेक्शन मार्च 16
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '18

1 Significant accounting policies:

1.1 Statement of Compliance

These standaloned financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time).

2.2 Basis of preparation and presentation

These standaloned financial statements are prepared in accordance with Ind AS under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values, the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (''Act'') (to the extent notified) and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The Ind AS are prescribed under Section 133 of the Act read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time). Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/ or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as a net realisable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorised into Level 1, 2 or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

2.3 Revenue Recognition

Construction and Real Estate

In respect of property development and / or Construction contracts, the Company follows percentage completion method as per Ind AS 11 read with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Real Estate Transactions issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The percentage of completion is stated on the basis of physical measurement of work actually completed/ actual cost incurred as compared to total estimated cost, at the balance sheet date, taking into account the contractual price and revision thereto. Losses on contracts are fully accounted for as and when incurred. Foreseeable losses are accounted for when they are determined except to the extent they are expected to be recovered through claims presented or to be presented to the customer or in arbitration. Expenditure incurred in respect of additional costs / delays are accounted in the year in which they are incurred. Claims made in respect thereof are accounted as income in the year of receipt of arbitration award or acceptance by client or evidence of acceptance received from the client. Project Development Income is the fee charged to the customers on transfer of property in consideration of various services rendered by the Company for promoting the respective projects.

Dividend Income

Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the payment is established.

Other Income

In respect of other incomes, accrual system of accounting is followed.

2.4 Foreign exchange translation and foreign currency transactions:

The functional currency of the Company is the Indian rupee. These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees (rounded off to million).

Foreign currency transactions are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transactions. Gains and losses resulting from settlement of such transactions are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Monetary assets and liabilities related to foreign currency transactions remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at year end rates. The difference in translation of monetary assets and liabilities and realised gains and losses on foreign exchange transactions are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The exchange difference on restatement of long term receivables / payables from / to foreign operations that are considered as net investments in such operation are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the separate financial statements of the reporting entity or the individual financial statements of the foreign operation, as appropriate.

Assets and Liabilities (both monetary and non-monetary) are translated at the closing rate at the year end. Income and expenses are translated at the monthly average rate at the end of the respective month. All resulting exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income till the disposal of the net investment.

2.5 Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing costs include interest and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset are included in the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

2.6 Employee Benefits:

Provident Fund

Contribution to Provident fund (a defined contribution plan) made to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner are recognised as expense.

Defined Benefit Plans

For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling ( if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest) , is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset.

Compensated Absences

The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment, as per the policy of the Company.

The liability towards such unutilized leave as at the end of each balance sheet date is determined based on independent actuarial valuation and recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

In respect of employees of overseas branch, end of service benefit is accrued in accordance with the terms of employment. Employees entitlements to annual leave and gratuity are recognized on actual basis and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.7 Taxation

Income tax expense represents sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

Current Tax:

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income- tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary differences arise from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Current and deferred tax for the year

Current and deferred taxes are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.

Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

2.8Property, plant and equipment:

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of Property, plant and equipment comprises of purchase price, applicable duties and taxes, any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets, upto the date the asset is ready for its intended use. The initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located is required to be included in the cost of the respective item of property plant and equipment and Cost of major inspections is recognised in the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment as a replacement, if recognition criteria are satisfied and any remaining carrying amount of the cost of previous inspection is derecognised. For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to adopt as deemed cost, the carrying value of PPE measured as per previous GAAP, accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment on the transition date of April 1, 2016.

Property, Plant and equipment retired from active use and held for sale are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realizable value and are disclosed separately.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in statement of profit and loss.

2.9 Depreciation and Amortisation:

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost less its estimated residual value.

Depreciation on Property, Plant and equipment and investment property have been provided on the straight line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.

Intangible Assets are amortised, on straight line method based on the useful life as assessed by the Management. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset is reviewed every year.

2.12 Investment property: Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals and/or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes). Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are measured in accordance with the Ind AS16’s requirement for cost model.

An investment property is derecognised upon disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no further economic benefits expected from disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the property is included in profit or loss in the period in which the property is derecognised.

For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to adopt as deemed cost, the carrying value of Investment property measured as per previous GAAP, accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment on the transition date of April 1, 2016.

2.10 Intangible Assets:

Identifiable intangible assets are recognised when the Company controls the asset, it is probable that future economic benefits attributed to the asset will flow to the Company and the cost of the asset can be reliably measured. At initial recognition, the separately acquired intangible assets are recognised at cost. Following initial recognition, the intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The estimated useful life and amortization method reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

2.11 Inventories:

Raw Materials:

Raw Materials, construction materials and stores & spares are valued at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. Cost includes all charges in bringing the materials to the place of usage, excluding refundable duties and taxes.

Work in Progress:

Work-in-Progress is valued at the contracted rates less profit margin / estimates.

Properties Under Development:

Properties under development are valued at cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. Cost comprises all direct development expenditure, administrative expenses and borrowing costs.

2.12 Investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint ventures:

On initial recognition, these investments are recognised at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction cost. Subsequently, they are measured at cost.

2.13 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets:

The Company recognises provisions when there is present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources and reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for Contingent liabilities is made in the notes on accounts when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Contingent assets are disclosed in the financial statements when flow of economic benefits is probable.

2.14 Financial instruments:

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in statement of profit an d loss.

2.15 Financial assets

Financial asset is

1. Cash / Equity Instrument of another Entity,

2. Contractual right to -

1. a) receive Cash / another Financial Asset from another Entity, or

2. b) exchange Financial Assets or Financial Liabilities with another Entity under conditions that are potentially favourable to the Entity.

2.16 Subsequent measurement of the financial assets

(i) Financial assets carried at amortised cost

A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. Further, in case where the company has made an irrevocable selection based on its business model, for its investments which are classified as equity instruments, the subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income.

(iii) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit and loss.

The Company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are not fair valued through profit or loss. Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime ECL. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recognised is recognized as an impairment gain or loss in statement of profit and loss.

Financial liabilities

Financial liability is Contractual Obligation to

1. a) deliver Cash or another Financial Asset to another Entity, or

2. b) exchange Financial Assets or Financial Liabilities with another Entity under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the Entity.

The company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts.

Subsequent measurement of the financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate the fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

Derecognition of financial instruments

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Company''s balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

Fair value of financial instruments

In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses a variety of methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date. The methods used to determine fair value include discounted cash flow analysis, available quoted market prices and dealer quotes. All methods of assessing fair value result in general approximation of value, and such value may or may not be realized.

2.17 Impairment of Assets:

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment:

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the Cash Generating Unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs.

If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset. An impairment loss is reversed in the statement of profit and loss if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of the asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

2.18 Fair value measurement

The Company measures certain financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value is the price that would be received on sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

a. In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

b. In the absence of principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

2.19 Leases:

The Company is obligated under non-cancelable leases for office and residential space that are renewable on a periodic basis at the option of both the lessor and lessee. Lease payments under operating leases are recognised as an expense on a straight line basis in the statement of profit and loss over the lease term except where the lease payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation.

The Company leases office facilities and residential space/facilities under cancelable operating lease agreements. Assets subject to operating leases are included under fixed assets or current assets as appropriate. Lease income is recognized in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the profit and loss account.

2.20 Earnings Per Share :

Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit for the year attributable to the Equity Shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit for the year, adjusted for the effects of dilutive potential equity shares, attributable to the Equity Shareholders by the weighted average number of the equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares outstanding during the year except where the results are anti-dilutive.

2.21 Cash Flow Statement:

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

2.22 Critical judgements in applying accounting policies:

The following are the critical judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that the directors have made in the process of applying the Company''s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statement.

(i) Revenue recognition: The Company uses the stage of completion method using survey method and /or on completion of physical proportion of the contract work to measure progress towards completion in respect of construction contracts. This method is followed when reasonably dependable estimates of costs applicable to various elements of the contract can be made. Key factors that are reviewed in estimating the future costs to complete include estimates of future labour costs and productivity efficiencies. Because the financial reporting of these contracts depends on estimates that are assessed continually during the term of these contracts, recognized revenue and profit are subject to revisions as the contract progresses to completion. When estimates indicate that a loss will be incurred, the loss is provided for in the period in which the loss becomes probable.

ii) Key sources of estimation uncertainty: The following are the key assumptions concerning the future

Inter-company balances

The Company has transactions with its subsidiaries and associates. The financial statements have been prepared on the assumption that the net effect of these transactions will be realised over time.

2.23Exceptional Items:

Exceptional Items represents the nature of transactions which are not in recurring nature during the ordinary course of business but lead to increase / decrease in profit / loss for the year.

2.24 Operating cycle:

The Company adopts operating cycle based on the project period and accordingly all project related assets and liabilities are classified into current and noncurrent. Other than project related assets and liabilities, 12 months period is considered as normal operating cycle.

2.25 Recent accounting pronouncements:

Standards issued but not yet effective and not early adopted by the Company:

Ind AS 115, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”

Ind AS 115 was notified on March 28, 2018 and establishes a five-step model to account for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Under Ind AS 115, revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer. The new revenue standard will supersede all current revenue recognition requirements under Ind AS. Either a full retrospective application or a modified retrospective application is required for annual periods beginning on or after April 01, 2018. Based on an initial assessment, the Company is of the opinion that the implementation of Ind AS 115 will not have a significant impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Other amendments:

On March 28, 2018, the MCA, issued certain amendments to Ind AS. The amendments relate to the following standards:

- Ind AS 40, Investment Property

- Ind AS 21, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

- Ind AS 12, Income Taxes

- Ind AS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures

- Ind AS 112, Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities

These amendments are effective from April 01, 2018. The Company believes that the aforementioned amendments will not materially impact the financial statements of the Company.

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