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न्यूक्लियस सॉफ्ट

बीएसई: 531209  |  NSE: NUCLEUS  |  ISIN: INE096B01018  |  Computers - Software Medium & Small

खोजें न्यूक्लियस सॉफ्ट कनेक्शन मार्च 18
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '19

1.1. Significant accounting policies

i. Basis of preparation of financial statements

a) Statement of compliance

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as prescribed under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as amended from time to time.

The Financial statements were approved for issue by the Board of Directors on 23 April 2019.

b) Functional and presentation currency

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR), which is also the Company’s functional currency. All amounts have been rounded-off to the nearest lacs unless otherwise indicated. Further, amounts below INR 50,000 have been rounded off to ‘-’ in the financial statements while rounding off to the nearest lacs unless otherwise indicated.

c) Current and non-current classification

All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.

Assets

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- It is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the company’s normal operating cycle;

- It is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- It is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- It is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Current assets include current portion of the noncurrent financial assets.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

Liabilities

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- It is expected to be settled in the company’s normal operating cycle;

- It is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- It is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- The company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current liabilities include current portion of the non-current financial liabilities.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities (if any) are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

Operating cycle

Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. The Company has ascertained its operating cycle, being a period within 12 months for the purpose of classification of assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

d) Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical basis except for the following items:

e) Use of estimates and judgements

In preparing these financial statements, management has made judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual result may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.

Judgements

Information about judgments made in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements is included in the following notes:

- Lease classification - Note 2.31

- Estimates of expected contract costs to be incurred to complete contracts- Note 2.15

Assumptions and estimation uncertainties

Information about assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment in the subsequent period financial statements is included in the following notes:

- Estimation of deferred tax expense and payable - Note 2.6

- Estimated useful life of property, plant and equipment and Intangible assets - Note 1.2 (iv) and (v)

- Estimation of defined benefit obligations--Note 2.39

- Impairment of trade receivables- Note 2.3 and Note 2.10

- Impairment loss on preference shares carried at amortised cost- Note 2.2

- Estimation of fair value of preference shares in subsidiary- Note 2.2

f) Measurement of fair values

The Company’s accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. The Company has an established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values. This includes a treasury team that has overall responsibility for overseeing all significant fair value measurements, including Level 3 fair values, and reports directly to the chief financial officer.

The treasury team regularly reviews significant unobservable inputs and valuation adjustments. If third party information, such as broker quotes or pricing services, is used to measure fair values, then the valuation team assesses the evidence obtained from the third parties to support the conclusion that these valuations meet the requirements of Ind AS, including the level in the fair value hierarchy in which the valuations should be classified.

Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows.

- Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

- Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

- Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement.

The Company recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

ii. Revenue recognition

The Company earns revenue primarily from software product development and providing support services mainly for corporate business entities in the banking and financial services sector.

- Effective 1 April, 2018, the Company has applied Ind AS 115 which establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue is to be recognised. Ind AS 115 replaces Ind AS 18 Revenue and Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts. The Company has adopted Ind AS 115 using the cumulative effect method. The effect of initially applying this standard is recognised at the date of initial application (i.e. 1 April 2018). The adoption of the standard did not have any material impact to the financial statements of the Company.

- Revenue from fixed price contracts and sale of license and related customisation and implementation is recognised in accordance with the percentage completion method calculated based on output method. Provision for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the year in which such losses become certain based on the current estimates. The contract cost used in computing the revenues include cost of fulfilling warranty obligations, if any.

- Revenue from sale of licenses, where no customisation is required, is recognised upon delivery of these licenses which constitute transfer of all risks and rewards.

- Revenue from time and material contracts is recognised as the services are rendered.

- Revenue from annual technical service contracts is recognised on a pro rata basis over the period in which such services are rendered.

- The solutions offered by the Company may include supply of third-party equipment or software. In such cases, revenue for supply of such third party products are recorded at gross basis as the Company is acting as the principal.

- Out of pocket reimbursable expenses e.g.travel etc. if incurred in relation to performance obligation under the contract is recognised as revenue.

Revenue is measured based on the transaction price, which is the consideration, adjusted for volume discounts, service level credits, price concessions and incentives, if any, as specified in the contract with the customer. Revenue also excludes taxes collected from customers.

Contract assets are recognised when there is excess of revenue earned over billings on contracts. Contract assets are classified as Service income accrued but not due. (only act of invoicing is pending in accordance with terms of the contract).

Advances from customers/ Advance billing and Deferred revenue (“contract liability”) is recognised when there is billing in excess of revenues.

Contracts are subject to modification to account for changes in contract specification and requirements. The Company reviews modification to contract in conjunction with the original contract, basis which the transaction price could be allocated to a new performance obligation, or transaction price of an existing obligation could undergo a change. In the event transaction price is revised for existing obligation a cumulative adjustment is accounted for.

iii. other income

Profit on sale of investments is determined as the difference between the sales price and the carrying value of the investment upon disposal of investments. Dividend income is recognised in profit or loss on the date on which the Company’s right to receive payment is established.

Interest income or expense is recognised using the effective interest method.

The ‘effective interest rate’ is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to:

- the gross carrying amount of the financial asset; or

- the amortised cost of the financial liability

In calculating interest income and expense, the effective interest rate is applied to the gross carrying amount of the asset (when the asset is not credit-impaired) or to the amortised cost of the liability. However, for financial assets that have become credit- impaired subsequent to initial recognition, interest income is calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset. If the asset is no longer credit-impaired, then the calculation of interest income reverts to the gross basis.

iv. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment includes its purchase price, any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use. Property, plant and equipment under construction and cost of assets not ready to use before the year end, are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment, except leasehold land and leasehold improvements, is provided on the straight-line method based on useful lives of respective assets as estimated by the management taking into account nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset and the operating conditions of the asset. Leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease. The leasehold improvements are amortised over the remaining period of lease or the useful lives of assets, whichever is shorter. Depreciation is charged on a pro-rata basis for assets purchased / sold during the year.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in profit or loss. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

The management’s estimates of the useful lives of the various property, plant and equipment are as follows:

*Based on technical evaluation, the useful lives as given above represent the period over which the management believes to use these assets; hence these lives are different from the useful lives prescribed under Part C of schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

v. Intangible assets

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates.

Subsequent expenditure on an intangible asset after its purchase / completion is recognised as an expense when incurred unless it is probable that such expenditure will enable the asset to generate future economic benefits in excess of its originally assessed standards of performance and such expenditure can be measured and attributed to the asset reliably, in which case such expenditure is added to the cost of the asset.

The management’s estimates of the useful lives of the software are 3 years.

vi. Financial instruments

a) Recognition and initial measurement

Trade receivables are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provision of the instrument.

A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

b) Classification and subsequent measurement

Financial assets

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

- amortised cost;

- Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)-equity investment; or

- Fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL)

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely for payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investment’s fair value in OCI (designated as FVOCI-equity investment). This election is made on an investment-by-investment basis.

All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost or FVOCI as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivatives financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirement to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets: Business model assessment

The Company makes an assessment of the objective of the business model in which a financial asset is held at a portfolio level because this best reflects the way the business is managed and information is provided to management. The information considered includes:

- the stated policies and objectives for the portfolio and the operation of those policies in practice. These include whether management’s strategy focuses on earning contractual interest income, maintaining a particular interest rate profile, matching the duration of the financial assets to the duration of any related liabilities or expected cash outflows or realising cash flows through the sale of the assets;

- how the performance of the portfolio is evaluated and reported to the Company’s management;

- the risks that affect the performance of the business model (and the financial assets held within that business model) and how those risks are managed;

- how managers of the business are compensated - e.g. whether compensation is based on the fair value of the assets managed or the contractual cash flows collected; and

- the frequency, volume and timing of sales of financial assets in prior periods, the reasons for such sales and expectations about future sales activity.

Financial assets: Assessment whether contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest

For the purposes of this assessment, ‘principal’ is defined as the fair value of the financial asset on initial recognition. ‘Interest’ is defined as consideration for the time value of money and for the credit risk associated with the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time and for other basic lending risks and costs (e.g. liquidity risk and administrative costs), as well as a profit margin.

In assessing whether the contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest, the Company considers the contractual terms of the instrument. This includes assessing whether the financial asset contains a contractual term that could change the timing or amount of contractual cash flows such that it would not meet this condition. In making this assessment, the Company considers:

- contingent events that would change the amount or timing of cash flows;

- terms that may adjust the contractual coupon rate, including variable interest rate features;

- prepayment and extension features; and

- terms that limit the Company’s claim to cash flows from specified assets (e.g. nonrecourse features).

A prepayment feature is consistent with the solely payments of principal and interest criterion if the prepayment amount substantially represents unpaid amounts of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding, which may include reasonable additional compensation for early termination of the contract. Additionally, for a financial asset acquired at a significant discount or premium to its contractual par amount, a feature that permits or requires prepayment at an amount that substantially represents the contractual par amount plus accrued (but unpaid) contractual interest (which may also include reasonable additional compensation for early termination) is treated as consistent with this criterion if the fair value of the prepayment feature is insignificant at initial recognition.

Financial assets: Subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities: Classification, subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held- for-trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss.

c) Derecognition

Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.

If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognized.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in profit or loss.

d) Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

e) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

The Company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank. Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and accounted for separately if the host contract is not a financial asset and certain criteria are met.

Derivatives are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivatives are measured at fair value, and changes therein are generally recognised in profit or loss.

The Company designates certain derivatives as hedging instruments to hedge the variability in cash flows associated with highly probable forecast transactions arising from changes in foreign exchange rates.

At inception of designated hedging relationships, the Company documents the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The Company also documents the economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument, including whether the changes in cash flows of the hedged item and hedging instrument are expected to offset each other.

Cash flow hedges

The Company recognizes derivative instruments and hedging activities as either assets or liabilities in its balance sheet and measures them at fair value. Gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value are accounted for depending on the use of the derivative and whether it is designated and qualifies for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair values of the derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are deferred and recorded as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) reported under accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the hedge transaction occurs and are then recognized in the statements of income along with underline hedge items and disclosed as part of total net revenues. Changes in the fair value of the derivatives not designated as hedging instruments and the ineffective portion of the derivatives designated as cash flows hedges are recognized in statement of income and are included in foreign exchange gains (losses), net, and other income (expense), net, respectively.

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in OCI and accumulated in the other equity under ‘effective portion of cash flow hedges’. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative that is recognized in OCI is limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item, determined on a present value basis, from inception of the hedge. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

The Company designates only the change in fair value of the spot element of forward exchange contracts as the hedging instrument in cash flow hedging relationships. The change in fair value of the forward element of forward exchange contracts (‘forward points’) is separately accounted for as a cost of hedging and recognised separately within equity.

The amount accumulated in other equity is reclassified to profit or loss in the same period or periods during which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss.

If a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting or the hedging instrument is sold, expires, is terminated or is exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. When hedge accounting for cash flow hedges is discontinued, the amount that has been accumulated in other equity remains there until, for a hedge of a transaction resulting in recognition of a non-financial item, it is included in the non-financial item’s cost on its initial recognition or, for other cash flow hedges, it is reclassified to profit or loss in the same period or periods as the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss.

If the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, then the amounts that have been accumulated in other equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.

vii. Impairment

a) Impairment of financial instruments

The Company recognises loss allowances for expected credit losses on:

- financial assets measured at amortised cost;

At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether financial assets are carried at amortised cost. A financial asset is ‘credit- impaired’ when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred.

The Company measures loss allowances at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses, except for the following, which are measured as 12 month expected credit losses:

- debt securities that are determined to have low credit risk at the reporting date; and

- other debt securities and bank balances for which credit risk (i.e. the risk of default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument) has not increased significantly since initial recognition.

Loss allowances for trade receivables are always measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

12-month expected credit losses are the portion of expected credit losses that result from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date (or a shorter period if the expected life of the instrument is less than 12 months).

When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company’s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward- looking information.

Measurement of expected credit losses

Expected credit losses are a probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the Company in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).

Presentation of allowance for expected credit losses in the balance sheet

Loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from the gross carrying amount of the assets.

Write-off

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the write-off.

b) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company’s non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated.

For impairment testing, assets that do not generate independent cash inflows are grouped together into cash-generating units (CGUs). Each CGU represents the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.

The recoverable amount of a CGU (or an individual asset) is the higher of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the CGU (or the asset).

An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Impairment loss recognised in respect of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets of the CGU (or group of CGUs) on a pro rata basis.

viii. Provisions (other than for employee benefits)

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows (representing the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date) at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognized as finance cost. Expected future operating losses are not provided for.

Post sales client support and warranties

The Company provides its clients with fixed period warranty for correction of errors and support on its fixed price product orders. Revenue for such warranty period is allocated based on the estimated effort required during warranty period.

Onerous contracts

A contract is considered to be onerous when the expected economic benefits to be derived by the Company from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision for an onerous contract is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before such a provision is made, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

ix. Foreign currency

a) Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated in to INR, the functional currency of the Company at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions or an average rate if the average rate approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are retranslated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date and exchange gain and losses arising on settlement and restatement are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Non- monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currencies are not retranslated.

Exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss, except exchange differences arising from the translation of the following items which are recognised in OCI:

- qualifying cash flow hedges to the extent that the hedges are effective.

During the year ended 31 March 2019, the company has adopted Appendix B to Ind AS 21-Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration which clarifies the date of transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income when an entity has received or paid advance consideration in a foreign currency. The effect on account of adoption of this amendment was insignificant.

b) Foreign operations

The assets and liabilities of foreign branches are translated into INR, the functional currency of the Company, at the exchange rates at the reporting date. The income and expenses of foreign operations are translated into INR at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions or an average rate if the average rate approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

x. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the year-end, except where the results would be anti-dilutive.

xi. Taxation

Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination or to an item recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

a) Current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any, related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts, and it is intended to realise the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.

b) Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognized in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognized in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits. Deferred tax is not recognized for:

- temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction;

- temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and

- taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. The existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, in case of a history of recent losses, the Company recognizes a deferred tax asset only to the extent that it has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax assets - unrecognized or recognized, are reviewed at each reporting date and are recognized/ reduced to the extent that it is probable/ no longer probable respectively that the related tax benefit will be realized.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.

Minimum Alternative Tax (‘MAT’) expense under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 is recognised as an asset when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, will flow to the Company and the asset can be measured reliably. MAT credit entitlement is set off to the extent allowed in the year in which the Company becomes liable to pay income taxes at the enacted tax rates. MAT credit entitlement is reviewed at each reporting date and is written down to reflect the amount that is reasonably certain to be set off in future years against the future income tax liability. MAT Credit Entitlement has been presented as Deferred Tax in Balance Sheet.

xii. Employee benefits

Defined contribution plans

The Company’s contribution to provident fund is considered as defined contribution plans and is charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each year end. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company, the recognized asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan (‘the asset ceiling’). In order to calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognized in OCI. The Company determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then-net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in profit or loss.

The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the year in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under:

(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the year in which the employee renders the related service are recognized as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date.

Employee stock option based compensation

The grant date fair value of equity settled share-based payment awards granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognized as expense is based on the estimate of the number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognized as an expense is based on the number of awards that do meet the related service and non-market vesting conditions at the vesting date.

For share-based payment awards with non-vesting conditions, the grant date fair value of the share-based payment is measured to reflect such conditions and there is no true-up for differences between expected and actual outcomes.

xiii. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non -cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.

xiv. Leases

a. Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

At inception of an arrangement, it is determined whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.

At inception or on reassessment of the arrangement that contains a lease, the payments and other consideration required by such an arrangement are separated into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If it is concluded for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset. The liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the incremental borrowing rate.

b. Lease payments

Lease payments under operating lease are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless such payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflation increases.

xv. Research and development

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product’s technical feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalized. The amount capitalized comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Property, Plant and equipment utilized for research and development are capitalized and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for property plant and equipment.

xvi. Recent accounting pronouncements

Recent Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”), through Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, has notified the following new and amendments to Ind ASs which the Company has not applied as they are effective from 1 April 2019:

Ind AS - 116

Ind AS 116 will replace the existing leases standard, Ind AS 17 Leases. Ind AS 116 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. It introduces a single, on-balance sheet lessee accounting model for lessees. A lessee recognises right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability representing its obligation to make lease payments. The standard also contains enhanced disclosure requirements for lessees. Ind AS 116 substantially carries forward the lessor accounting requirements in Ind AS 17.

The Company will adopt Ind AS 116, effective annual reporting period beginning 1 April 2019. The Company will apply the standard to its leases, retrospectively, with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard, recognised on the date of initial application (1 April 2019). Accordingly, the Company will not restate comparative information, instead, the cumulative effect of initially applying this Standard will be recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as on 1 April 2019. On that date, the Company will recognise a lease liability measured at the present value of the remaining lease payments. The right-of-use asset is recognised at its carrying amount as if the standard had been applied since the commencement date, but discounted using the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate as at 1 April 2019. In accordance with the standard, the Company will elect not to apply the requirements of Ind AS 116 to short-term leases and leases for which the underlying asset is of low value.

On transition, the Company will be using the practical expedient provided in the standard and therefore, will not reassess whether a contract, is or contains a lease, at the date of initial application. The Company is in the process of finalising changes to systems and processes to meet the accounting and reporting requirements of the standard.

With effect from 1 April 2019, the Company will recognise new assets and liabilities for its operating leases of premises and other assets. The nature of expenses related to those leases will change from lease rent in previous periods to a) amortization change for the right-to-use asset, and b) interest accrued on lease liability.

Previously, the Company recognised operating lease expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

On preliminary assessment, for leases other than shortterm leases and leases of low value assets, the Company will recognise a right-of-use asset of Rs 434 lakhs and a corresponding lease liability of Rs 456 lakhs with the cumulative effect of applying the standard by adjusting retained earnings net of taxes. There will be consequent reclassification in the cash flow categories in the statement of cash flows.

Ind AS 12 Income taxes (amendments relating to income tax consequences of dividend and uncertainty over income tax treatments)

The amendment relating to income tax consequences of dividend clarify that an entity shall recognise the income tax consequences of dividends in profit or loss, other comprehensive income or equity according to where the entity originally recognised those past transactions or events. The Company does not expect any impact from this pronouncement.

The amendment to Appendix C of Ind AS 12 specifies that the amendment is to be applied to the determination of taxable profit (tax loss), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates, when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments under Ind AS 12. It outlines the following: (1) the entity has to use judgement, to determine whether each tax treatment should be considered separately or whether some can be considered together. The decision should be based on the approach which provides better predictions of the resolution of the uncertainty (2) the entity is to assume that the taxation authority will have full knowledge of all relevant information while examining any amount (3) entity has to consider the probability of the relevant taxation authority accepting the tax treatment and the determination of taxable profit (tax loss), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates would depend upon the probability. The Company does not expect any significant impact of the amendment on its financial statements.

Ind AS 109 - Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation

The amendments relate to the existing requirements in Ind AS 109 regarding termination rights in order to allow measurement at amortised cost (or, depending on the business model, at fair value through other comprehensive income) even in the case of negative compensation payments. The Company does not expect this amendment to have any impact on its financial statements.

Ind AS 103 - Business Combinations and Ind AS 111 -Joint Arrangements

The amendments to Ind AS 103 relating to remeasurement clarify that when an entity obtains control of a business that is a joint operation, it remeasures previously held interests in that business. The amendments to Ind AS 111 clarify that when an entity obtains joint control of a business that is a joint operation, the entity does not re-measure previously held interests in that business. The Company will apply the pronouncement if and when it obtains control / joint control of a business that is a joint operation.

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