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moneycontrol.com भारत | लेखांकन नीति > Computers - Software Medium & Small > लेखांकन नीति फॉलोड से आर सिस्टम्स इंटरनैशनल - बीएसई: 532735, NSE: RSYSTEMS

आर सिस्टम्स इंटरनैशनल

बीएसई: 532735  |  NSE: RSYSTEMS  |  ISIN: INE411H01032  |  Computers - Software Medium & Small

खोजें आर सिस्टम्स इंटरनैशनल कनेक्शन दिसम्बर 16
लेखांकन नीति साल : दिसम्बर '18

(a) Statement of compliance

In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company has adopted Indian Accounting Standards (referred to as “Ind AS”) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition is January 1, 2017. Previous year’s numbers in the financial statements have been restated to Ind AS. In accordance with Ind AS 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards, the Company has presented a reconciliation from the presentation of financial statements under Accounting Standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 and other accounting principles generally accepted in India (“Previous GAAP”) to Ind AS of Shareholders’ equity as at December 31, 2017 and January 1, 2017 and of the comprehensive net income and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2017 (refer to Note 36).

(b) Functional and presentation currency

These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR), which is also the Company’s functional currency. All amounts have been rounded-off to the nearest million, unless otherwise indicated.

(c) Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual and going concern basis except for certain financial instruments and equity settled employee stock options which have been measured at fair value. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of consideration given in exchange of goods and services.

Based on the nature of activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorised into Level 1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:

Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

(d) Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, Plant and Equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Capital work-in-progress includes cost of Property, Plant and Equipment that are not ready to be put to use.

When part of an item of property plant and equipment has different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major component) of property plant and equipment. Subsequent expenditure related to an item of Property, Plant and Equipment is added to its book value only if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. All other expenses on existing Property, Plant and Equipment, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from disposal of Property, Plant and Equipment are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is disposed.

e) Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of Property, Plant and Equipment less their estimated residual values using the straight line method (‘SLM’) over the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management. The assets residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each financial year end or whenever there are indicators for review, and adjusted prospectively.

The management believes that depreciation rates currently used fairly reflect its estimate of the useful lives and residual values of fixed assets and are in align with Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.

The management estimates the useful lives for the Property, Plant and Equipment as follows:

(f) Intangible assets

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is disposed.

Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

A summary of amortisation policies applied to the company’s intangible assets are as below:

(g) Investment property

Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals and/or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes). Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are measured in accordance with Ind AS 16’s requirements for cost model.

An investment property is derecognised upon disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from the disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the property (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in profit or loss in the period in which the property is derecognised.

(h) Government grants

The Company enjoys exemption from payment of duty on import of goods subject to certain performance conditions being fulfilled by the Company. Such exemption is considered as a government grant. Grants from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with those conditions. The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment is reduced by government grants i.e. the asset is accounted for on the basis of its net acquisition cost. The grant is recognised in profit or loss over the life of a depreciable asset in the form of reduced depreciation expense.

(i) Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.

(j) Financial assets

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortised cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.

Classification of financial assets

(i) Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortised cost (except for debt instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (except for debt instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Interest income is recognised in profit or loss for FVTOCI debt instruments. For the purposes of recognising foreign exchange gains and losses, FVTOCI debt instruments are treated as financial assets measured at amortised cost. Thus, the exchange differences on the amortised cost are recognised in profit or loss and other changes in the fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of ‘Reserve for debt instruments through other comprehensive income’. When the investment is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in this reserve is reclassified to profit or loss.

All other financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value.

Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognised in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.

(iii) Investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI

On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instruments. This election is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the ‘Reserve for equity instruments through other comprehensive income’. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the investments.

A financial asset is held for trading if:

- it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or

- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or

- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument or a financial guarantee.

(iv) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the Company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income for investments in equity instruments which are not held for trading.

Debt instruments that do not meet the amortised cost criteria or FVTOCI criteria (see above) are measured at FVTPL. In addition, debt instruments that meet the amortised cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria but are designated as at FVTPL are measured at FVTPL.

A financial asset that meets the amortised cost criteria or debt instruments that meet the FVTOCI criteria may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases. The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on re-measurement recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the Company, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.

De-recoanition of financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

On de-recognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.

Foreign exchange gains and losses

The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.

(i) For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortised cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedging instruments in a hedging relationship.

(ii) Changes in the carrying amount of investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI relating to changes in foreign currency rates are recognised in other comprehensive income.

(iii) For the purposes of recognising foreign exchange gains and losses, FVTOCI debt instruments are treated as financial assets measured at amortised cost. Thus, the exchange differences on the amortised cost are recognised in profit or loss and other changes in the fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognised in other comprehensive income.

(k) Financial liabilities

For the purpose of subsequent measurement, financial liabilities are classified as:

- Financial liabilities at amortized cost

- Financial liabilities such as loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method. The change in measurements is recognized as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

- Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

Financial liabilities at FVTPL represented by contingent consideration are measured at fair value with all change recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

De-recoanition of financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired.

The Company also derecognise a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial lability with modified terms is recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Foreign exchange gains and losses

For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortised cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortised cost of the instruments and are recognised in ‘Other income’.

The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at FVTPL, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognised in statement of profit or loss.

(l) Impairment

i. Financial assets

The Company applies Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost and financial assets that are debts instruments and are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI). ECL is the difference between contractual cash flows that are due and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at the original effective interest rate.

For trade receivables, the Company recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECL at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition. For other financial assets, the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12 month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used.

ii. Non-financial assets

The carrying amounts of Property, Plant and Equipment are reviewed at each balance sheet date or whenever there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. If any indications exist, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount.

Recoverable amount of intangible under development that is not yet available for use is estimated at least at each financial year end even if there is no indication that the asset is impaired.

An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s fair value and its value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

(m) Derivative financial instruments

The Company enters into foreign exchange forward contracts to manage its exposure to foreign exchange rate risks.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

Hedge accounting

The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives, embedded derivatives and non-derivatives in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Fair value hedges

Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognised in profit or loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit or loss from that date.

Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss, and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to (effective portion as described above) are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in profit or loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

(n) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or development of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of that asset. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

(o) Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Where the Company is a lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value of lease property and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are recognised as finance cost in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets comprising land or building which are subject to operating leases are included under non-current investments as investment property and are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.

(p) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company, there is no uncertainty as to the ultimate collection and the revenue can be reliably measured.

(i) Income from software services

Rendering of services

Revenue from software development and maintenance services projects comprise income from time-and-material and fixed-price contracts.

Revenue with respect to time and material basis is recognised when services are rendered. The same is calculated based on man-hours incurred for rendering services.

Fixed-price contracts vary in duration depending on the terms of the work being performed. Revenue from fixed price contracts (including maintenance and support contracts) is recognised using the percentage of completion method, when reasonable progress has been made on the milestones achieved as specified in the contracts. The stage of completion of project is determined by the proportion that contract efforts incurred for work performed up to the balance sheet date bear to the estimated total contract effort. Changes in contract performance, estimated profitability and final contract settlements may result in revision to costs and revenue and are recognised in the period in which the revisions are determined. If a loss is projected on any contract in process, the entire projected loss is recognised immediately.

Revenue from business process outsourcing services is derived from both time based and unit-price contracts. Revenue is recognized as the related services are performed in accordance with the specific terms of the contracts with the customers.

In terms of contracts, excess / shortfall of revenue over the billed as at the year end is carried in financial statement as unbilled revenue / unearned revenue separately.

Sale of products

Revenue from the sale of product (software and hardware) is recognised when the significant risks and rewards associated with the ownership is transferred to the buyer.

(ii) Interest

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the carrying amount and the effective interest rate. Interest income is included under the head ‘Other income’ in the statement of profit and loss.

(iii) Dividend

Dividend income is recognized when the Company’s right to receive dividend is established. Dividend income is included under the head ‘Other income’ in the statement of profit and loss.

(q) Foreign currency transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency of the Company, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non- monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates at the date when the values were determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on conversion / settlement of foreign currency monetary items and on foreign currency liabilities relating to Property, Plant and Equipment acquisition are recognized as income or expenses in the year in which they arise.

(r) Employee benefits

The Company participates in various employee benefit plans. Post-employment benefits are classified as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans. Under a defined contribution plan, the Company’s only obligation is to pay a fixed amount with no obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits. The related actuarial and investment risks fall on the employee. The expenditure for defined contribution plans is recognized as expense during the period when the employee provides service. Under a defined benefit plan, it is the Company’s obligation to provide agreed benefits to the employees. The related actuarial and investment risks fall on the Company. The present value of the defined benefit obligations is calculated using the projected unit credit method.

(i) The Company’s contribution to provident fund, employee state insurance scheme and other social security plans are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by the employees

(ii) Gratuity is a defined benefit obligation plan operated by the Company for its employees covered under Company Gratuity Scheme. The cost of providing benefit under gratuity plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the reporting date and are charged to the statement of profit and loss, except for the re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses which are recognized in full in the statement of other comprehensive income in the reporting period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit and loss subsequently.

(iii) Compensated absences

The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences. The employees can carry forward a portion of the unutilised accumulating compensated absences and utilise it in future periods or receive cash at retirement or termination of employment. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increases this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the end of the reporting period. The Company recognizes accumulated compensated absences based on actuarial valuation. Nonaccumulating compensated absences are recognized in the period in which the absences occur. The Company recognizes actuarial gains and losses immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company presents the entire Compensated absences liability as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for twelve months after the reporting date.

(s) Employee stock compensation expenses

Employees of the Company receive remuneration in the form of share based payment transactions, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments granted (equity-settled transactions).

In accordance with Ind AS 102 - “Share Based Payments” the cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value of the options at the date of the grant and recognized as employee compensation cost over the vesting period. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest.

The expense or credit recognized in the statement of profit and loss for a year represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning and end of that year and is recognized in employee benefits expense. In case of the employee stock option schemes having a graded vesting schedule, each vesting tranche having different vesting period has been considered as a separate option grant and accounted for accordingly.

Where the terms of an equity-settled transaction award are modified, the minimum expense recognized is the expense as if the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognized for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment transaction, or is otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification.

(t) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except deferred tax liability arising from initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, affects neither accounting nor taxable profit/ loss at the time of transaction. Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses, except deferred tax assets arising from initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, affects neither accounting nor taxable profit/ loss at the time of transaction. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of temporary differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company’s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of temporary differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the temporary differences originate.

The carrying amount of deferred tax asset is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside the statement of profit and loss is recognized in corelation to the underlying transaction either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. MAT credit available is recognized as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as “MAT Credit Entitlement.” The Company reviews the “MAT credit entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(u) Segment reporting

The Company determines reportable segment based on information reported to the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) for the purposes of resource allocation and assessment of segmental performance. The CODM evaluates the Company’s performance and allocates resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by business segments. The accounting principles used in the preparation of the financial statements are consistently applied to record revenue and expenditure in individual segments.

Each segment item reported is measured at the measure used to report to the CODM for the purposes of making decisions about allocating resources to the segment and assessing its performance.

Inter segment transfers:

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfers were to third parties at current market prices.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

The corporate and other segment includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

(v) Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares), if any occurred during the reporting period, that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources. Further, the weighted average number of equity shares used in computing the basic earnings per share is reduced by the shares held by R Systems Employee Welfare Trust at the balance sheet date, which were obtained by subscription to the shares from finance provided by the Company.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit for the year attributable to the equity shareholders and the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year, are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

The number of shares and potential dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented for any bonus shares issues including for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.

(w) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. If the effect of time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects the risks specific to the liability. These estimates are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(x) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably.

(y) Business combinations

Business combinations arising from transfers of interest in entities that are under the control of the shareholder that controls the Company are accounted for as if the acquisition had occurred at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. The assets and liabilities acquired are recognised at their carrying amounts. The identity of the reserves is preserved and they appear in the financial statements of the Company in the same form in which they appeared in the financial statements of the transferor company.

(z) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprises of cash at bank, cash in hand and short term deposits with an original maturity period of three months or less.

(aa) Use of estimates and judgement

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the end of year. These estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events, historical experience, actions that the Company may undertake in the future and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on a periodic basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected.

Critical accounting estimates

i. Revenue recognition

The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method in accounting for its fixed-price contracts. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts or costs expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts or costs to be expended. Efforts or costs expended have been used to measure progress towards completion. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.

ii. Income taxes

The Company’s major tax jurisdictions is India, though the Company also files tax returns in other overseas jurisdictions. Significant judgements are involved in determining the provision for income taxes.

The Company reviews carrying amount of deferred tax assets at the end of each reporting period.

iii. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology.

iv. Impairment of investments

The Company reviews its carrying value of investments at each Balance Sheet date, or more frequently when there is an indication of impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for.

New standards and interpretations not yet adopted

a. Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration: On March 28, 2018, Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) has notified the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 containing Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration which clarifies the date of the transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income, when an entity has received or paid advance consideration in a foreign currency. The amendment will come into force from April 1, 2018. The Company has evaluated the effect of this on the financial statements and the impact is not material.

b. Ind AS 115- Revenue from Contract with Customers:

On March 28, 2018, Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) has notified the Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contract with Customers. The core principle of the new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Further the new standard requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts with customers.

The standard permits two possible methods of transition:

- Retrospective approach - Under this approach the standard will be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented in accordance with Ind AS 8- Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

- Retrospectively with cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of initial application (Cumulative catch - up approach).

The effective date for adoption of Ind AS 115 is financial periods beginning on or after April 1, 2018.

The Company will adopt the standard on January 1, 2019 by using the cumulative catch-up transition method and accordingly comparatives for the year ending December 31, 2018 will not be retrospectively adjusted. The effect on adoption of Ind AS 115 is expected to be insignificant.

स्रोत: रेलीगरे टेचनोवा

न्यूज़ फ़्लैश

  • MARKET CUES : FIIs ने कैश में `366.79 की बिकवाली की
  • MARKET CUES : DIIs ने कैश में `338.4 Cr की खरीदारी की
  • MARKET CUES : FIIs ने F&O में `449.33 Cr की बिकवाली की
  • MARKET CUES : इंडेक्स फ्यूचर्स में `141.99 Cr की बिकवाली
  • MARKET CUES : इंडेक्स ऑप्शंस में `245.38 Cr की खरीदारी की
  • MARKET CUES : स्टॉक फ्यूचर्स में `538.68 Cr की बिकवाली
  • MARKET CUES : स्टॉक ऑप्शंस में `14.04 Cr की बिकवाली
  • HSBC ON BPCL : BUY रेटिंग, लक्ष्य `591/Sh
  • CITI ON GUJ GAS : BUY रेटिंग, लक्ष्य बढ़ाकर `290/Sh
  • MORGAN STANLEY ON HUL : Equal-weight रेटिंग, लक्ष्य `2020/Sh

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