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समबंदम स्पिनिंग मिल्स

बीएसई: 521240  |  NSE: SAMBANDAM  |  ISIN: INE304D01012  |  Textiles - Spinning - Cotton Blended

खोजें समबंदम स्पिनिंग मिल्स कनेक्शन मार्च 17
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '18

1. Corporate Information

Sambandam Spinning Mills Limited (“the Company”) is a listed Public Company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act 2013, as applicable in India. The registered office headquartered in Salem, India. The Company is principally engaged in production of cotton yarn.

2. Basis of preparation of financial statements

Compliance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS):

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Ind AS notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the 2013 Act”), as applicable. Upto the year ended 31st March, 2017, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company''s first Ind AS Financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2016.

First time adoption:

In accordance with Ind AS 101 on First time adoption of Ind AS, the Company has prepared its first Ind AS financial statements which include:

(i) Three Balance sheets namely, the opening Balance sheet as at April 1, 2016 (the transition date) by recognising all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS, not recognising assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS, by reclassifying assets and liabilities from previous GAAP as required by Ind AS, and applying Ind AS in measurement of recognised assets and liabilities; and Balance sheets as at March 31, 2018 and 2017.

(ii) Two statements each of profit and loss; cash flows and changes in equity for the years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 together with related notes.

The same accounting policies have been applied for all the periods presented except when the Company has made use of certain exceptions and/ or exemptions.

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/ or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realisable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorised into Level 1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the revised schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the company has determined its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current and noncurrent classification of assets and liabilities.

The Ind AS Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupees (Rs).

The Ind AS Financial Statements were approved for issue by the Board of Directors on 27th May 2018.

3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable.

Sale of Goods

Revenue from sale of products is recognized when the goods are despatched or appropriated as per the terms sales at which time the title and significant risks and rewards of ownership pass to the customer. Revenue is recognised when collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured. Revenue is exclusive of Goods and service tax, as applicable and is reduced for estimated customer returns, commissions, rebates and discounts, and other similar allowances.

Rendering of Services

Revenue from services is recognized in accordance with the specific terms of contract on performance when the collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured.

Income from energy generated

Revenue from energy generated through windmills is recognized based on the contractual rates with the customers and the credit granted by the regulatory authorities to the said customers for units generated.

Other operating revenues

Other operating revenues comprise of income from ancillary activities incidental to the operations of the company and is recognized when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

4. Other Income

Other Income comprises of Dividend, Interest and rental income and are accounted on accrual basis.

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the Company''s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

5. Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions (including booking/cancellation of forward contracts) are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, other than those covered by forward exchange contracts, are translated at year end foreign exchange rates. Exchange differences arising on settlements are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of forward exchange contracts which are entered into hedge the foreign currency risk of a receivable/payable recognized in these financial statements, premium or discount on such contracts are amortised over the life of the contract and exchange differences arising thereon in the reporting period are recognised in the Statement of Profit and loss. Forward exchange contracts which are arranged to hedge the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment is marked to market at the year end and the resulting losses, if any, are charged to the Statement of Profit and loss.

6. Employee benefits

(i) Short term employee benefit obligations are estimated and provided for. A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of salaries, wages, performance incentives, medical benefits and other short term benefits in the period the related service is rendered, at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.

Liabilities recognised in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date;

(ii) Retirement Benefit plans and Post-employment benefits

Payments to defined contribution plans i.e., Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and other funds and employee state insurance are determined under the relevant schemes and/ or statute and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period of incurrence when the services are rendered by the employees.

For defined benefit plans i.e. Company''s liability towards gratuity (funded), other retirement/ terminations benefits and compensated absences, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Defined benefit costs are comprised of:

- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);

- net interest expense or income; and

- re-measurement

The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item ''Employee benefits expense''. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.

Re-measurement of net defined benefit liability/ asset pertaining to gratuity comprise of actuarial gains/ losses (i.e. changes in the present value resulting from experience adjustments and effects of changes in actuarial assumptions) and is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to profit or loss.

7. Property, Plant and Equipment

Cost:

Property, plant and equipment held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost (net of duty/ tax credit availed) less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Cost of all civil works (including electrification and fittings) is capitalised with the exception of alterations and modifications of a capital nature to existing structures where the cost of such alteration or modification is Rs.10000 and below.

Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognised impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalised in accordance with the Company''s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.

Fixtures, plant and equipment (including patterns and dies) where the cost exceeds Rs.10,000 and the estimated useful life is two years or more, is capitalised and stated at cost (net of duty/ tax credit availed) less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Deemed cost on transition to Ind AS:

The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as of April 1, 2016 (the transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use such carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

Depreciation/amortization:

Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule 11 to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II are used:

De-recognition:

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss

8. Intangible Assets

The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognised as of April 1, 2016 (the transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use such carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately, where the cost exceeds Rs.10,000 and the estimated useful life is two years or more, is capitalised and carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

De-recognition of intangible assets:

An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, is recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.

Estimated useful life of Intangible assets - (i) Computer software - over a period of 5 years; (ii) Trade name - Over a period of 5 years.

9. Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss will be recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss. Provision for impairment will be reviewed periodically and amended depending on changes in circumstances.

10. Inventories

Inventories (other than process waste) are stated at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Cost of raw materials, stores, spares and consumables comprises cost of purchases and includes taxes and duties and is net of eligible credits under applicable schemes.

Cost of work-in-progress, work-made components and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overheads, which is allocated on a systematic basis.

Cost of inventories also includes all other related costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale

The cost for the said purpose is determined as follows:

(i) in the case of stores and spare parts, the weighted average cost (net of credit, if any),

(ii) in the case of cotton in process and manufactured yarn, is the cost adopting the absorption costing method, and without deduction of the adjustment made for power generated through Wind energy converters and adjusted against the cost of power purchased from state electricity board.

(iii) Process waste is valued at net realizable value.

Provision is made for obsolete, slow moving and damaged items of inventory, if any.

11. Government grants

Government grants (including export incentives) are recognised only when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attaching to them and the grants will be received.

Government grants are recognised in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.

12. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

13. Research and development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred. Capital expenditure on research and development, where the same represents cost of Property, Plant and Equipment, if any, is given the same accounting treatment as applicable to other capital expenditure.

14. Income Taxes

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax. Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.

Current Tax:

Current tax is determined on taxable profits for the year chargeable to tax in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 including other applicable tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted

Deferred Tax:

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

Deferred tax asset is recognised for the carry forward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities

15. Provisions and contingencies

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursements will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.

A disclosure of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation that may, but probably will not, require outflow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation where the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

16. Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.

Financial assets:

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

Classification of financial assets

The financial assets are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets are added to the fair value of the financial assets on initial recognition.

After initial recognition:

(.i.) Financial assets (other than investments and derivative instruments) are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

Effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Investments in debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortised cost:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments on principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Income on such debt instruments is recognised in profit or loss and is included in the “Other Income”.

The Company has not designated any debt instruments as fair value through other comprehensive income.

(ii) Financial assets (i.e. derivative instruments and investments in instruments other than equity of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates) are subsequently measured at fair value.

Such financial assets are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains (e.g. any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset) or losses arising on re-measurement recognised in profit or loss and included in the “Other Income”.

Investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

The Company measures its investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates at cost in accordance with Ind AS 27. At transition date, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of such investments measured as per the previous GAAP and use such carrying value as its deemed cost.

Impairment of financial assets:

A financial asset is regarded as credit impaired when one or more events that may have a detrimental effect on estimated future cash flows of the asset have occurred. The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets (i.e. the shortfall between the contractual cash flows that are due and all the cash flows (discounted) that the Company expects to receive).

De-recognition of financial assets:

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. On de-recognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset''s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable is recognised in the Statement of profit and loss.

The Company has applied the de-recognition requirements of financial assets prospectively for transactions occurring on or after April 1, 2015 (the transition date).

Financial liabilities and equity instruments:

Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by a group entity are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Repurchase of the Company''s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company''s own equity instruments.

Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities (other than derivative instruments) are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortised cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalised as part of costs of an asset is included in the “Finance Costs”.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Financial guarantee contracts

A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are initially measured at their fair values and are subsequently measured (if not designated as at Fair value though profit or loss) at the higher of:

- the amount of impairment loss allowance determined in accordance with requirements of Ind AS 109; and

- the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

De-recognition of financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company''s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in profit or loss.

The Company has applied the de-recognition requirements of financial liabilities prospectively for transactions occurring on or after April 1, 2015 (the transition date).

Derivative financial instruments:

The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts and cross currency interest rate swaps. Further details of derivative financial instruments are disclosed in Note 3.6.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

Embedded derivatives

Derivatives embedded in non-derivative host contracts that are not financial assets within the scope of Ind AS 109 are treated as separate derivatives when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not measured at Fair value through profit or loss.

As of the transition date, the Company has assessed whether an embedded derivative is required to be separated from the host contract and accounted for as a derivative on the basis of the conditions that existed on the later of the date of first became a party to the contract and the date when there has been change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that otherwise would be required under the contract.

Hedge accounting:

The Company designates certain derivatives as hedging instruments in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges, cash flow hedges. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Note 3.6 sets out details of the fair values of the derivative instruments used for hedging purposes.

Fair value hedges

Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognised in profit or loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit or loss from that date.

Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss, and is included in the “Other Income”.

Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to (effective portion as described above) are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) are included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in profit or loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

17. Recent accounting pronouncements

Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration?: On March 28, 2018, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (''the MCA'') notified the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 containing Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration which clarifies the date of the transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income, when an entity has received or paid advance consideration in a foreign currency.

The amendment will come into force from April 1, 2018. The Company has evaluated the effect of this on the financial statements and the impact is not material.

Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contract with Customers: On March 28, 2018, the MCA notified the Ind AS 115. The core principle of the new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Further, the new standard requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity''s contracts with customers.The standard permits two possible methods of transition:

Retrospective approach - Under this approach the standard will be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

Retrospectively with cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of initial application (Cumulative catch - up approach)

The effective date for adoption of Ind AS 115 is financial period beginning on or after April 1, 2018.

The Company will adopt the standard on April 1, 2018 by using the cumulative catch-up transition method and accordingly, comparatives for the year ending or ended March 31, 2018 will not be retrospectively adjusted. The effect on adoption of Ind AS 115 is not reasonably estimable.

Critical accounting judgments and key sources of estimation uncertainty

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the Company''s Management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities recognised in the Ind AS financial statements that are not readily apparent from other sources. The judgements, estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors including estimation of effects of uncertain future events that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates (accounted on a prospective basis) and recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods of the revision affects both current and future periods.

The following are the critical judgements and estimations that have been made by the Management in the process of applying the Company''s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements and/or key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.

Inventories

An inventory provision is recognised for cases where the realisable value is estimated to be lower than the inventory carrying value. The inventory provision is estimated taking into account various factors, including prevailing sales prices of inventory item, changes in the related laws / emission norms and losses associated with obsolete / slow-moving / redundant inventory items. The Company has, based on these assessment, made adequate provision in the books.

Taxation

Tax expense is calculated using applicable tax rate and laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted. In arriving at taxable profit and all tax bases of assets and liabilities, the Company determines the taxability based on tax enactments, relevant judicial pronouncements and tax expert opinions, and makes appropriate provisions which includes an estimation of the likely outcome of any open tax assessments / litigations. Any difference is recognised on closure of assessment or in the period in which they are agreed.

Deferred income tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, unabsorbed depreciation and unused tax credits could be utilized.

Provisions

The management makes judgements based on experience regarding the level of provision required to account for potentially uncollectible receivables using information available at the Balance Sheet date. Provisions so created are based on management assessment of the receivable balances after communication with the respective debtors and are created on the receivable balances net off against related brokerage dues outstanding.

Provisions for litigation and contingencies are determined based on evaluations made by the management of the present obligation arising from past events the settlement of which is expected to result in outflow of resources embodying economic benefits, which involves judgements around estimating the ultimate outcome of such past events and measurement of the obligation amount. Due to the judgements involved in such estimations, the provisions are sensitive to the actual outcome in future periods.

Fair value measurements and valuation processes

Some of the Company''s assets and liabilities are measured at fair value for financial reporting purposes. The Management determines the appropriate valuation techniques and inputs for the fair value measurements. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company used market-observable data to the extent it is available. Where Level 1 inputs are not available, the Company engaged third party qualified valuers to perform the valuations in order to determine the fair values based on the appropriate valuation techniques and inputs to fair value measurements. Information about the valuation techniques and inputs used in determining the fair value of various assets and liabilities are disclosed in Note 3.6.

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