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द बाइक हॉस्पिटेलिटी

बीएसई: 531373  |  NSE: BYKE  |  ISIN: INE319B01014  |  Finance - General

खोजें द बाइक हॉस्पिटेलिटी कनेक्शन मार्च 16
लेखांकन नीति साल : मार्च '18

Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

A. Basis of preparation of financial statements

(i) Statement of compliance

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (“Ind-AS”) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values, the provisions of the Companies Act , 2013 (Acf) (to the extent notified) and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The Ind-AS are prescribed under Section 133 of the Act read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.

The financial statements up to year ended March 31, 2017 were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Act.

These financial statements are the first financial statements of the Company under Ind-AS. The Company has adopted all the Ind-AS standards and the adoption was carried out in accordance with Ind-AS 101 “First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards”. The transition was carried out from Indian Accounting Principles generally accepted in India as prescribed under Section 133 of the Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (IGAAP), which was the previous GAAP. Reconciliations and descriptions of the effect of the transition have been summarized in note 4.

Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

(ii) Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on historical cost basis except the following:

- certain financial assets and liabilities are measured at fair value;

- assets held for sale- measured at fair value less cost to sell;

- defined benefit plans- plan assets measured at fair value; and

(iii) Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle, held primarily for the purpose of trading, expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period and cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. All other assets are classified as noncurrent.

A liability is current when it is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle, it is held primarily for the purpose of trading, it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period and there is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

(iv) The functional currency of the Company is the Indian Rupee. These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees and all values are rounded to the nearest lakhs, except when otherwise stated.

B. Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind-AS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Application of accounting policies that require critical accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgments and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed in note C below. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

C. Critical accounting estimates

(i) Income taxes

The Company’s major tax jurisdiction is India. Significant judgements are involved in determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/ recovered for uncertain tax positions. Also refer to note 24.

(ii) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology.

(iii) Defined benefit plans

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and other post-employment benefits and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans operated in India, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation.

The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rates.

Further details about gratuity obligations are given in Note 37.

(iv) Fair value measurement of financial instruments

When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. Judgements include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. See Note 33-34 for further disclosures.

D. Property, Plant and Equipment

Land (including Land Developments) is carried at historical cost. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated in the balance sheet at cost historical less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.

Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the Company''s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.

Subsequent to recognition, property, plant and equipment (excluding freehold land) are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced in intervals, the Company recognizes such parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciation respectively. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement cost only if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.

Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and land developments) less their residual values over the useful lives, using the straight- line method (“SLM”). Management believes that the useful lives of the assets reflect the periods over which these assets are expected to be used, which are as follows:

Depreciation on additions/ deletions to fixed assets is calculated pro-rata from/ up to the date of such additions/ deletions.

Assets individually costing less than H 5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

The carrying values of property, plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. The residual values, useful life and depreciation method are reviewed at each financial year-end to ensure that the amount, method and period of depreciation are consistent with previous estimates and the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the items of property, plant and equipment.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between sale proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.

Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind-AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at April 1, 2016 measured as per the previous GAAP as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.

E. Investment properties

Investment properties are properties that is held for long-term rentals yields or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes) or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property.

Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated impairment loss, if any.

Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement. Fair values are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer.

Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in profit or loss in the period of derecognition.

F. Intangible Assets

Intangible asset including intangible assets under development are stated at cost, net of accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost.

Intangible assets in case of computer software are amortised on straight-line basis over a period of 3 years, based on management estimate. The amortization period and the amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each financial year.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with infinite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.

G. Impairment of Non-Financial Assets

Assessment is done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is any indication that an asset (tangible and intangible) may be impaired. For the purpose of assessing impairment, the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets, is considered as a cash generating unit. If any such indication exists, an estimate of the recoverable amount of the asset/ cash generating unit is made. Assets whose carrying value exceeds their recoverable amount are written down to the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the profit or loss. Recoverable amount is higher of an asset’s or cash generating unit’s net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life. Assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

H. Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial Instruments are further divided in two parts viz. Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.

Part I - Financial Assets

a) Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

b) Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

Financial Assets at amortised cost:

A Financial Assets is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss.

Financial Assets at FVTOCI (Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income)

A Financial Assets is classified as at the FVTOCI if following criteria are met:

- The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows (i.e. SPPI) and selling the financial assets

Financial instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses and reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the statement of profit and loss. On de-recognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to the statement of profit and loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

Financial Assets at FVTPL (Fair Value through Profit or Loss)

FVTPL is a residual category for financial instruments. Any financial instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a financial instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’).

Financial instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind-AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind-AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument by instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable. If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

c) De-recognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily de-recognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

d) Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind-AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

- Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance;

- Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI

- Lease receivables under Ind-AS 17

- Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind-AS 18 (referred to as ‘contractual revenue receivables’ in these financial statements)

- Loan commitments which are not measured as at FVTPL

- Financial guarantee contracts which are not measured as at FVTPL

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables or contract revenue receivables.

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the Company reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL. Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, the Company considers:

- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the Company uses the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument; and

- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed. On that basis, the Company estimates the following provision matrix at the reporting date:

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss. This amount is grouped under the head ‘other expenses’. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

- Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

- Loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts: ECL is presented as a provision in the balance sheet, i.e. as a liability.

- Debt instruments measured at FVTOCI: Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ‘accumulated impairment amount1 in the OCI.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

Part II - Financial Liabilities

a) Initial recognition and measurement

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

b) Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss is designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind-AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risks are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to statement of profit and loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.

Loans and borrowings

This is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. This category generally applies to borrowings.

Preference shares, which are mandatorily redeemable on a specific date, are classified as liabilities under borrowings. The dividends on these preference shares, if any are recognised in the profit or loss as finance cost.

Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind-AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.

c) De-recognition

A financial liability is de-recognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.

d) Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

I. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting Initial recognition and subsequent measurement:

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks, respectively.

Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

The purchase contracts that meet the definition of a derivative under Ind-AS 109 are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss.

J. Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost on First-In-First-Out (FIFO) or net realizable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of purchased inventory is determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

K. Recognition of Revenue

Revenue from services is recognised on accrual basis and when the consideration is reliably determinable and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the collection of the consideration.

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. The amount recognised as revenue is exclusive of Service Tax, Goods and Service Tax and Value Added Taxes (VAT), and is net of discounts.

L. Other Income

Interest income from financial assets is recognized when it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial assets to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

M. Provisions and Contingent Liabilities

General

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, the expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements. Payments in respect of such liabilities, if any are shown as advances.

N. Accounting for Taxation of Income

(i) Current taxes

Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in other comprehensive income or equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income or equity respectively. Current income tax is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. The Company offsets, on a year to year basis, the current tax assets and liabilities, where it has legally enforceable right to do so and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.

(ii) Deferred taxes

Deferred tax is recognized on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and are accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Company intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

O. Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to settle a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique

In estimating the fair value of an asset or liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

The Company’s Management determines the policies and procedures for both recurring fair value measurement, such as derivative instruments and unquoted financial assets measured at fair value, and for non-recurring measurement, such as assets held for distribution in discontinued operations.

This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.

P. Foreign Currency-Transactions and Balances

The Company’s functional currency is H and accordingly, the financial statements are presented in H.

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the company in their functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting period. Gains and losses arising on account of differences in foreign exchange rates on settlement/ translation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates as at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e. translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in OCI or profit or loss are also recognised in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).

Q. Borrowing Costs

General and specific borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

R. Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Finance Lease as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating Lease as a lessee

Leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from leased assets are consumed. The aggregate benefit of incentives (excluding inflationary increases) provided by the lessor is recognized as a reduction of rental expense over the lease term on a straight-line basis. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred

S. Employee Benefits

a) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employee’s services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the undiscounted amounts of the benefits expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

b) Other Long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for compensated absences (annual leave) which are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employee render the related service are presented as non-current employee benefits obligations. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the Projected Unit Credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligations. Re-measurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions (i.e. actuarial losses/ gains) are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The obligations are presented as current in the balance sheet, if the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

c) Post- employment obligations

The Company operates the following post-employment schemes:

(i) Defined benefit plans such as gratuity

(ii) Defined contribution plans such as provident fund.

Defined benefit plan - Gratuity Obligations

The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (the “Gratuity Plan”) covering eligible employees in accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment.

The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is actuarially determined using the Projected Unit Credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have a terms approximating to the terms of the obligation

The net interest cost, calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of the plan assets, is recognised as employee benefit expenses in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurements gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the other comprehensive income in the year in which they arise and are not subsequently reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

Defined Contribution Plan

The Company pays provident fund contributions to publicly administered provident funds as per local regulatory authorities. The Company has no further obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognised as employee benefit expense when they are due.

T. Earnings Per Share

Basic Earnings Per Share (EPS) amounts are calculated by dividing the profit for the year attributable to equity holders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- The after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- Weighted average number of equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all the dilutive potential equity.

U. Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

V. Insurance claims

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

W. Segment Reporting

The Company identifies operating segments based on the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker.

The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Board of Directors that makes strategic decisions.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.

X. Equity Instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

Y. Recent Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) through Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 has notified the following new and amendments to Ind ASs which the Company has not applied as they are effective for annual periods beginning on or after April 1, 2018:

Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 21 The Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

Ind AS 115 — Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 115 establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers.

Ind AS 115 will supersede the current revenue recognition standard Ind AS 18 - Revenue, Ind AS 11 - Construction Contracts when it becomes effective.

The core principle of Ind AS 115 is that an entity should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Specifically, the standard introduces a 5-step approach to revenue recognition:

Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer

Step 2: Identify the performance obligation in contract

Step 3: Determine the transaction price

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

Step 5: Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation

Under Ind AS 115, an entity recognises revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied, i.e. when ‘control’ of the goods or services underlying the particular performance obligation is transferred to the customer.

The Company is evaluating the possible impact of Ind AS 115 and will adopt the standard with all related amendments to all contracts with customers retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognised at the date of initial application. Under this transition method, cumulative effect of initially applying Ind AS 115 is recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings of the annual reporting period. The standard is applied retrospectively only to contracts that are not completed contracts at the date of initial application. The Company does not expect the impact of the adoption of the new standard to be material on its retained earnings and to its net income on an ongoing basis.

Ind AS 21 — The Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

The amendment clarifies on the accounting of transactions that include the receipt or payment of advance consideration in a foreign currency. The appendix explains that the date of the transaction, for the purpose of determining the exchange rate, is the date of initial recognition of the non-monetary prepayment asset or deferred income liability. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, a date of transaction is established for each payment or receipt. The Company is evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.

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